From June 1, 2021, HOPS is applying the process of financial settlement of unintended exchange - FSkar.

What is FSkar?

Due to the physical nature of an interconnected network, there are unavoidably deviation between the intended exchange and the actual physical flow – unintended exchange. There are three different components of these deviations:

  1. frequency containment process energy - FCP energy - results from the activation of FCR across the synchronous area and is an intended component,
  2. ramping period energy - RPE - results from the application of ramps to the scheduled exchanges and is also an intended component, and the third component is
  3. actual unintended exchange.

The aim of the FSKAR process is to perform the accounting and settlement of these three components with a price.


According the EBGL (Art. 50(3) and 51(1))  settlement of the unintended exchange with price is required. FCP energy and unintended exchange are settled at the same price (based on day-ahead market prices) and the RP energy at a zero price.

Input parameters

Input parameters for the calculation are the scheduled energy exchange Esch , the exchanged energy between the LFC areas/blocks Eex as reflected in the accounting data, the frequency deviation ∆𝑓 and the K-factor.

Output parameters

The output of the accounting function are EFCP , ERP and Eue.


Price determination
Input parameters for the calculation of the settlement price for each settlement period are the day-ahead market prices (DAMP), Eue , EFCP i ∆𝑓. There are two components, one frequency independent and second frequency dependent.

Frequency-independent component:

Frequency-dependent component: